Flat tires on your bicycle, while frustrating, are easily dealt with. The causes are numerous, ranging from a leaky valve to the obvious blowout. But no matter the reason, these simple directions can get back on the road or trail quickly.
It's much easier to fix a flat if you first remove the wheel from your bike. Removing the wheel is a 2-step process:
Most brake assemblies sit very close to your wheel rims and use a quick-release system to disconnect and reconnect them. The exact location and design of these release systems will depend on your style of brakes.
Once you've disengaged the brake assembly, your wheel is still held to the frame or fork (depending on if it's the rear or front wheel) by the wheel axle. To release the axle, check to see if you have a quick-release lever—most bikes have this—or a bolt-on nut and then follow the steps below.
Front wheel: To remove a front wheel, simply open the quick-release lever and unscrew the securing nut slightly on the opposite side as needed to release the tension holding the wheel in place.
Note: Some bicycles have retention devices designed to hold a wheel in place even when its quick-release lever is open. If your wheel doesn't pop out after you open the quick-release lever, check the owner's manual that came with your bike for details on its particular release-and-retention system. Or consult with a bike pro at your local REI.
Rear wheel: Removing the rear wheel is almost as easy as removing the front wheel, but the chain presents an added complication. See our video below or follow these instructions.
Before removing your rear wheel, shift your chain onto the smallest rear cog. To do so, adjust the shifter up then raise your bike and spin its wheels until the gear-shift is complete. Turn the bike upside down, then turn the rear axle quick-release lever until it's fully open. You may need to unscrew the nut slightly on the opposite side. Pull back on your rear derailleur to give yourself some slack, then lift out the wheel with your other hand. The wheel should pop free without getting tangled in your chain. If your wheel stays put, it's likely there's a retention device holding it in place (see the note above).
These work just like quick-release axles except that they must be loosened with a wrench instead of a lever, so it takes a bit longer.
To loosen a bolt-on axle, simply grab both ends of the axle with 2 good-fitting wrenches and turn both wrenches a couple of full turns. If you only have one wrench, alternate between ends of the axle bolt, loosening each a half turn or so at a time.
If you're removing a bolted rear wheel, follow the procedure described above to avoid getting it hung up in your chain.
It's important to find the origin of your flat tire. It may be a nail that is now long gone, leaving you with a hole in your tube and tire. Or it may be a thorn or piece of glass that is still stuck in the tire and could damage your newly repaired or replaced tube.
When searching for the cause of a flat, begin on the outside and work your way in.
Most bike tires are held inside the rims with a combination of physical grip and air pressure. The grip comes from the edge—or "bead"—of the tire interlocking with the edge of the rim. The pressure comes from the inflated tube pressing the tire against the rim.
First, release all of the remaining air from your flat tire by depressing the small plunger in the center of your tire valve (Presta valves must be opened first. To do so, remove the valve cap and turn the valve counterclockwise.) Next, unseat your tire bead using the following procedure:
Once a section of the tire bead is free, you should be able to unseat the rest of the bead with your fingers. Remove the inflatable tube from beneath the tire by pulling the valve stem out through the rim first. The rest of the tube slide out easily when pulled. Be careful when pulling the valve out through the rim, as its sharp edge could damage the valve.
Tube damage can be difficult to spot. If you don't see any obvious punctures or blowouts, try inflating the tube so you can check for escaping air. To find very small leaks, pass the tube close to your eye or submerge it in water and look for bubbles.
Tip: Leave the tire in its same location on the wheel so you can check for tire damage once the tube leak is discovered.
If you can't find any tube damage, check the valve. If the valve stem or base is cut, cracked or severely worn, it may be leaking. If so, the entire tube will need to be replaced.
If the valve is in good condition, check the thin strip along the inside of your rim. Look for protruding spoke ends or areas where the strip may have come free and pinched the tube against the rim surface.
Once the tube damage has been found, check your tire for damage as well. Use the valve stem to relocate the tube so you can find the same location on the tire. Look for any embedded objects in the outside tread. Then turn the tire inside out and do a full visual inspection of the inner surface, making your way slowly around the tire. If you find any cuts, squeeze them to pull apart the rubber and look for anything embedded in the tire. Use a tweezer to remove any foreign debris.
If your tire has sustained little or no permanent damage (as is often the case), your decision will be whether to repair your tube or replace it.
Repair: Repairing a bike tube is easy once you get the hang of it, and it is more inexpensive as well. Most commercial patching kits contain everything you need to create an effective patch in the field, including step-by-step instructions. However, patching a tube should be considered an emergency repair. For maximum reliability and safety, replace a patched tube as soon as possible.
Replacement: This is the best and, in some situations, the only solution to a flat tire. You must replace your tube any time the damage is too extensive or severe to patch, or when a patch job fails to hold.
Note: Replacing tubes is more expensive than patching them. However, the resulting tire/tube combination is generally stronger and longer lasting than a patch job. To repair a bike tube, follow the instructions included in your tube-repair kit.
Replacing a tube is simply a matter of using the right size. Size information is available on the tube itself, on the sidewall of your tire or in your bike owner's manual.
Now inflate your tire slowly, checking both sides of the rim to make sure that the tire bead stays firmly seated. Double-check the valve as you go to ensure it remains straight. To make sure your tube doesn't get caught between your tire and the rim, go around the whole tire once and pinch both sides of the tire inward.
Inflate the tire to its recommended pressure (printed on the tire itself or in your owner's manual). If you don't have a gauge, use your thumb as a guide. If your thumb presses in easily, keep pumping.
Simply reverse the procedure you used to remove it. Reattach the wheel to your frame dropouts, holding the derailleur out of the way if you're reinstalling the rear wheel.
If a bolt-on axle holds the wheel in place, you must tighten it securely. If a quick-release mechanism is involved:
Finally, flip the bike right-side-up. Be sure to reattach your brakes before riding!
Carry a spare tube: It's always wise to carry an extra tube. Just make sure you have the right size. Your tube size is indicated on the sidewall of your tires and in your owner's manual. Also note whether it uses a Schraeder or Presta valve.
Carry a patch kit: This is a compact and economical alternative to a new tube. The downsides? They are more hassle and offer a somewhat less durable solution.
Carry tire levers: These easily fit into even a small underseat bike bag.
Carry a pump: Some flats can be avoided by simply riding on tires that are properly inflated. Check your air pressure before every ride.
For additional helpful tips, see the REI Expert Advice article, Flat Tire Prevention for Your Bike.
Contributors: Karl Schumacher, Novara bike tech rep; Shawn Pedersen, REI Seattle master bike tech.
By Steve Tischler
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Last updated: 03/04/2013
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